How to make a vineyard yourself - instructions for beginners
In order for the grapes to grow and bear fruit well, they need to create optimal conditions. In addition to regular watering and a convenient place to grow, his vine needs reliable support.
Gardeners make special supports - pergolas and trellises that hold the poured bunches of grapes.
In addition, the vineyard adorns the garden plot with its appearance. If you follow the guide on how to make a vineyard with your own hands from scrap materials, every beginner can handle it.
What it is
A vineyard is a piece of land that grows and bears fruit grape... This plant, originally from warm regions, but gradually gardeners are spreading the culture to the northern lands. If in the south the grape bushes grow in the ground without any adaptations, then in the northern regions the plants need support for better growth and abundant fruiting.
Already in the third year, it begins to bear fruit well, so it must be equipped with a reliable support, and not temporary supports. Otherwise, it will affect the quality of the crop.
Tapestries can be made by yourself. To do this, it is necessary to prepare the main components of the trellis: pillars and wire, as well as the tools necessary for work. Poles are different: wooden, metal or reinforced concrete. The height of the pillars can be different, the optimal trellis is considered to be 2 meters high. But sometimes gardeners make vineyards up to 3.5 meters high.
It is better to take a wire with a thickness of 3-4 mm from galvanized steel. Copper or aluminum can be used, but they are often stolen by non-ferrous metal hunters.
Why do you need a tapestry
A trellis is a support structure for climbing plants such as grapes. It is required for the normal growth and development of the vine, does not allow it to break, get wet or dry out.
Stakes, trees or structures can be used for support. But this will not be a good vehicle for the growth and development of the vine. And from the aesthetic side, such supports will not look very presentable.
Pros and cons of the design
The advantages of trellises are as follows:
- The grapes are under the sun, which is why the process of photosynthesis is better. The berries will receive enough nutrients, they will be sweet and large.
- The bush becomes stronger and less susceptible to pest attacks.
- Good ventilation of grape bushes will prevent them from being affected by infectious diseases and fungi.
- Shoots attached to trellises will not break.
- Easier to look after. Easier to process with biologics.
- It is easier to prepare the vineyard for winter, cover it with insulation.
- Convenience in harvesting.
The growing vine can be directed in the right direction, thereby creating a beautiful composition from the plant.
Trellis also have some disadvantages:
- Depending on the materials, the construction cost is high.
- Difficulty in assembling the structure.
- Some species do not allow you to get a high yield from them, for example, monoplane.
Cultivation of a crop on supports has more advantages than disadvantages. In a limited area, this is the most optimal way to grow grapes of different varieties and get a rich harvest.
Types of trellises
Vine supports not only have the main function, but are also decorative. Gardeners use them for zoning a site or as hedges.The most common types of tapestries are the following varieties.
In appearance, these are several pillars dug in a row, and a wire stretched between them. A bush planted and tied to a support will grow in one plane. The advantages of this design:
- easy to do on your own;
- requires the use of a small amount of materials, as a result of which it has a low cost;
- the bush is well ventilated, it is convenient to care for it and cover it for the winter;
- there is an opportunity to plant flowers or vegetables in the area between the supports.
But it is impossible to grow a large number of bushes on one plane. You cannot grow powerful varieties, otherwise it will thicken, and its yield will be low.
These are two vertical trellises arranged vertically. They are designed to support one row of bushes. The vine of the vineyard is evenly distributed over two planes. It has the following advantages:
- more light enters the plants;
- well ventilated, which protects the bushes from pests and diseases;
- more bushes can be planted in a small area, especially if the area for the vineyard is small;
- maximum pollination of inflorescences occurs;
- evaporation of moisture slows down, which does not require frequent watering and saves the crop in drought.
Among the disadvantages - it is required to allocate more area for the construction of the structure.
This design can be done over a large area as it requires a lot of space. It is often done in the driveway. It turns out a large area with a shade where you can leave the car in the summer. You can place it in the depths of the site and put furniture under it, making an unusual gazebo for relaxation.
Bushes are planted on both sides of the arch. You can use different varieties, with self-pollination the varieties will not "deteriorate". An arched support requires a lot of materials and the help of a specialist in the construction. Vine care is also hampered by the fact that it will be difficult to remove old shoots from the bushes.
With a visor
It is a single-plane construction, vertical, with a small vine canopy. A row of supports, tied with wire, are bent horizontally at the top. A wire is also pulled over the visor, and the shoots are tied. This trellis is built for grape varieties with long shoots. The bushes are well ventilated with air and receive a lot of light, so they yield more than a simple single-plane support.
Which to choose
When choosing the type of trellis, you need to take into account the grape variety and the possibilities, both financial and the size of the site. If there is a place, and the grape variety is undersized, then a single-plane support is enough.
For powerful varieties with a large number of clusters of large berries, a strong trellis is required, so a two-plane construction must be made. If there is a lot of space and there are opportunities, you can swing on an arched or make a semi-arch.
What is required to make a vineyard
To make a structure yourself, you need to carefully prepare and study the step-by-step instructions for its construction.
Preparation of materials
Materials are different in appearance and quality:
- Wood. It is easy to make a structure out of wood, the material is soft and easily brought to the desired state. You can assemble the trellis pretty quickly. But to give a quality look to the details, they need to be well polished so that they become smooth. This design will be short-lived, it will quickly rot under the influence of weather conditions.
- Armature. It is usually used to assemble the upper part of the arched supports. It is quite flexible and is not suitable for rigid tapestries.
- Pipes. They are rigid and do not bend; any kind of trellis can be made of them. Often they take profile pipes, they are light in weight, inexpensive, easy to work with. Welding is required to create a metal support. It is of higher quality and lasts a long time.
Sometimes other materials are used: plasterboard profiles, plastic pipes.This is not a problem, as long as the materials are durable and fit. This increases the duration of the tapestry.
When choosing a material and type of support, the following criteria must be taken into account:
- Weight. The structure must be strong, but the material is not heavy, otherwise it will be difficult to work with it.
- The size. It can be different due to the type of trellis.
- Rigidity. A hard material is needed so that it does not sag under the weight of the overgrown branches of the plant.
- Duration of operation. Metal structures will last longer than wooden ones.
- Land area. If there is little space, it is recommended to make one-plane or two-plane trellises. If there is enough space, then you can give preference to an arched trellis or pergola.
An important factor is finances, but it is better to immediately make a high-quality and durable support.
Place for the vineyard
The main factors that should be guided when choosing a location for a vineyard are:
- sun illumination;
- blown by winds;
- soil structure.
The best place is considered to be the southern side of the site, preferably near the wall of the house, at a distance of 1.5 meters. During the day, the wall will be heated by the sun, and the plant will warm at night.
If there is no place in the south of the site, you can make it in the west, where there are no large trees.
It is necessary to plant bushes at a distance of 3 meters from trees and 2 meters from fruit bushes. They will protect the vineyard from the winds. But the trees should be short.
Trellis making tools
A set of tools is required for self-construction of a trellis. Its list depends on the material used. Often this requires: a shovel, a saw for wood and metal, a welder for metal pipes, a hammer, a concrete mixing machine, wire cutters.
Sometimes you need other tools that are available from any owner.
Drawings and diagrams
Before you start building a trellis, you need to draw a diagram of planting grape bushes. You will also need drawings of the selected type of trellis with dimensions. You can make them yourself using a photo of the selected variety. Often, a trellis height from 2.5 m to 4 is sufficient, so it will be convenient to cut dry branches and harvest.
Regardless of the type of trellis, the instructions for its manufacture are as follows:
- Preparation of supports. Each post is equipped with crossbeams made of reinforcement or thin pipes. They are fastened by welding or tied with a piece of wire.
- Preparation of grooves. To install the supports, you need to dig holes in the form of funnels with a depth of 80 cm.The distance between them should be 40-50 cm.Pour sand on the bottom of the hole with a layer of 20 cm.
- Installation of supports. The pillars are placed in holes and covered with broken bricks or fine stones. They will then need to be cemented for sustainability. If wooden supports are used, their base must first be soaked in a solution of copper sulfate for 10 days to protect against early decay.
- Wire pulling. After the pits have been cemented, after 3 days, the wire can be pulled. It is required to fasten it from the top level to the bottom. 4-5 rows of wire are enough, and the distance from the soil to the bottom row should be at least 50 cm.
Guided by these instructions, you can build any trellis yourself of high quality and durable.
How to make different types of tapestries yourself
The two-plane trellis is most often used by gardeners, because the shoots from one bush are located in two planes. On this support, grapes grow and bear fruit better. There are varieties of this species.
This structure is constructed from two supports dug into the ground at an angle of 45 degrees. They form two separate planes. On the site, 4 points should be marked at a distance of 3 meters with a width of 80 cm. Dig pipes into them and spread them apart. Concrete the recesses.Then attach the wire according to the instructions.
It is similar to the previous one and differs in that there is one plane from the ground at the support, and the expansion begins at some distance from the ground. To create it, you need to dig in a number of supports in a row, and then make a crossbar at a distance of 50 cm or more from the ground. Fix the pipes on it at an angle of 45-60 degrees and pull the wire.
- L-shaped (pergola)
This is a support with additional fastenings at the top with supports in the form of a "visor". A piece of pipe or timber 50 cm long is attached to a dug-in support. Wire is also pulled on them. It turns out an additional area for the development of the vine, while the height of the pergola does not increase.
Sometimes it is made in the form of a decorative arbor made of wood. Instead of wire, a wooden crate is used. It looks very nice and the resulting place is used for relaxation. Furniture is installed under the canopy, where the family can relax in the shade of the vineyard.
The arched trellis can be rounded at the top or have corners. It is difficult to build it; assistants are required for its work. It is necessary to dig 4-6 pillars into the ground to a depth of 50 cm to 1 m. The height of the pillars depends on what the arch will be intended for.
Fasten the pillars with cement mortar. Make the top of the arch from longitudinal and transverse beams. If the top is rounded, then you need to use reinforcement.
Garter grapes to supports
The appearance of the structure also depends on the correct garter of the bush. You can correctly tie up grapes as follows:
- Skeletal shoots are tied to the lower tier. To do this, use a textile tape, old nylon tights or socks. Fishing line and wire should not be taken; in the wind, they can damage the branches.
- The branches are not attached vertically: long shoots are attached to the upper tier, and young ones to the lower one. Shoots with brushes are tied horizontally, the rest at an angle of 45-90 degrees.
- Branch binding should be done before and after flowering.
- Tie each branch separately, and not in a bundle.
Tie the branches tightly and do not bend too much, otherwise they will dry out.
Trench for watering and feeding
The roots of grapes reach a depth of 4-5 meters, so gardeners use underground watering. Why dig a trench to a depth of 50 cm and a width of 25 cm. Cellophane is laid at the bottom, coarse gravel is poured on it, and small gravel is poured on top. So the trench is filled up to a quarter of the depth. A water pipe is laid on it, with a diameter of 4-5 cm with through holes made at a distance of 10-15 cm. The pipe is covered with rubble, insulated with cellophane and covered with earth. The ends of the pipe are closed with caps. As needed, water or a fertilizer solution is supplied to it.
Growing grapes troublesome but pleasant experience. The beautiful view of the trellis entwined with grapes with poured bunches is pleasantly pleasing to the eye, and the tasty and healthy berry surprises with its pleasant taste.
A video about creating a trellis from an experienced winegrower:
We have single-plane trellis in the vineyard in our garden. They are located from east to west so that the sun illuminates the grapes well. I selected the distance between the rows so that they do not obscure each other.